The Fairbanks-Morse Gas Engine
The engines of Fairbanks, Morse & Co.
are all of the four-cycle compression type. The horizontal style is built in eleven sizes, from 3 to 70 B. H. P., and the vertical style of 2 B. H. P. The design of these engines, which is mostly based on the Caldwell-Charter patents, has a simplicity of construction in which the least number of moving parts has been a leading feature.
The valves are of the poppet type, the exhaust valve being operated by a direct line push-rod with a roller contact with the cam on the secondary gear; the roller being thrown on or off the cam by a bell-crank arm moved by the governor.
The governor is of the centrifugal type attached to the flywheel, counterbalanced by spiral springs and made adjustable by set nuts.
To the exhaust valve push-rod is attached an arm that operates the gas inlet-valve in connection with the air pipe extending from the base of the engine. The gas valve has an index valve to regulate the flow of gas.
A mixing-chamber in the head of the cylinder is insulated from the combustion chamber by an inlet-check valve, self-operating, held to its seat by a spring, and entirely enclosed within the mixing-chamber by the flanged projection from the cylinder head. This arrangement makes this a free-working valve and avoids leakage or undue friction.
The Fairbanks-Morse Gas Engine
Hot tube and electric ignition are used as preferred. The electrodes are located in the head of the cylinder, with its sparking-device operated by the exhaust-valve push-rod through a second push-rod and arms. The engine as arranged for gas is shown in Fig. 107.
The Fairbanks-Morse Gas Engine, 3 to 5 H. P.
The Fairbanks-Morse Gas Engine, Showing Connections
The Fairbanks-Morse Gas Engine, Larger Size
The Fairbanks-Morse Gas Engine, Showing the Self-Starter Charging Pump
The gasoline engines (Figs. 108, 109, 110, and 111 of various sizes represent the arrangement for gasoline. They have a gasoline pump attached to the base of the engine directly under, and driven by a crank pin on the face of the exhaust eccentric. The pump drawing a supply from a tank placed in a safe place below the level of the pump, discharges into a small reservoir (P in Fig. 109, and also shown in the cylinder heads of Figs. 108 and 110), and overflows the surplus back to the tank. A small valve K in the reservoir P regulates the flow of gasoline to the mixing-chamber. In the air pipe is a nozzle leading to the reservoir P, and the in-going air draws from the nozzle the proper amount of gasoline to form a perfectly combustible mixture of gasoline and air.
Each suction of the engine draws up fresh gasoline from the reservoir P, and always the same quantity, as controlled by the supply or throttle valve K.
The Fairbanks-Morse Gas Engine, with Wheel & Crank Pump for Starting Engine
The self-starting devices are shown in Figs, 111 and 112, and consist of a small hand air-pump for medium-sized engines, and a hand crank pump on the larger size attached to the base of the eng1ne. A small receptacle in the base of the pump is charged with gasoline of sufficient quantity for a single engine charge. The operation of the pump then charges the cylinder, and a match exploder fires the charge.
The Fairbanks-Morse Vertical Gas Engine
The Fairbanks-Morse Vertical Geared Gas Engine
The small vertical engines of this company are illustrated in Figs. 113 and 114, for power and pumping purposes.
The bearings, crank, and valve gear are enclosed in the base and run in an oil bath, so that the piston and other moving parts are perfectly lubricated by the dash of the crank.
Fig. 113 shows the ratchet crank for starting the engine, and Fig. 114 shows the geared engine on one base as used for pumping or hoisting.
The Ruger Gas and Gasoline Engine
The Ruger Vertical Gasoline Engine
The Ruger 15 H. P. Gas Engine
The Ruger 10 H. P. Gas Engine
The Ruger gas and gasoline engines are built in the vertical style, as in Fig. 115, of 1, 2½, 5, and 8 B. H. P.; and in the horizontal style, of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 50 B. H. P. They are of the four-cycle compression type; are arranged for gas, gasoline vapor' or liquid, natural and producer gas. The gas engines have three poppet valves in two valve chambers, and the gasoline engines have only two poppet valves in one valve chamber.
Any of the valves can be quickly removed, cleaned, and replaced by the unscrewing of a plug. The adjustments are simple, and the ignition by hot tube or electric spark, as desired.
The governing is accomplished by controlling the exhaust valve; that is, holding it open when the speed is above the normal. The governor is located in the secondary gear, and by its centrifugal action retards the closing of the exhaust valve—thus relieving the piston from doing work by compressing idle charges of air when the engine is running light.
The large sizes for electric lighting are built double, with impulse at every revolution of the shaft. For 30 H. P. and over, a self-starting device is provided. The gasoline pump is driven by an adjustable lever and rod operated from a cam on the reducing-gear.
The pumping engines are vertical, and carry the pump and gear on the same base. The igniting device is hot tube or electric, as preferred. A special starting-device is furnished with the large engines.
The American Gas Engine
The American Gas Engine Company
have the control of the American patents of the Griffin gas engines, and of Dick Kerr & Co.
of London, and Kilmarnock in Scotland. The Western Gas Construction Company
are the manufacturers of these engines in all the patterns as made in Europe.
The American Gas Engine
In Fig. 118 is illustrated their four-cycle compression engine, with poppet valves operated from a longitudinal cam shaft driven by spiral gear—the gas and air inlet entering through the cylinder head. The exhaust is on the opposite side of the cylinder; its valve is operated by a lever and roller from a cam on the valve-gear shaft.
The American Double-Action Gas Engine
In Fig. 119 is illustrated the double-acting engine of this company. It is essentially of the Griffin style as made in Europe, with an impulse on each side of the piston. The piston rod works through a stuffing-box in the front end of the cylinder, with the connecting-rod carried in a cross-head working in a slide frame, as in ordinary steam-engine practice. All the valves are of the poppet type, operated by cams on a single cam shaft, giving positive movement to every working part.
A ball governor, operated by bevel gear from the cam shaft, controls the gas inlet valve for both ends of the cylinder. The timing-valves are slide valves, also operated by cams on the cam shaft, and so arranged that the time of ignition can be adjusted and made uniform independent of the eccentricities of the hot tube.
The Griffin Double-Acting Cylinder, Two-Cycle Type
In Fig. 120 is represented the construction of the cylinder of the engine as made in England, showing the water-cooling jacket around the piston rod.
As a double-acting engine using the fourth stroke of the piston each way as an impulse stroke, it makes the action of the engine equivalent to a two-cycle type for steadiness of running. The single-acting engines are made in six sizes, from 1½ to 11¼ B. H. P. The double-acting engines are made also in six sizes, from 4 to 18½ B. H. P.
The Vreeland Gas Engine
The Vreeland Gas Engine
This engine is designed in the four-cycle compression type, with the principal exhaust through ports in the cylinder, uncovered by the piston at the end of the explosive stroke. It has also a supplementary exhaust valve in the head of the cylinder for completing the exhaust by the return stroke. The supplementary exhaust valve is operated by a lever across the cylinder head and a push-rod moved by a cam on the reducing gear.
The supplementary exhaust valve has a free communication by a pipe with the main exhaust. Both the cylinder and cylinder head have a water-cooling circulation. An independent push-rod from the gas-valve stem to a cam on the reducing-gear is controlled in its motion by the lateral movement of a roller, which is actuated through a bell-crank lever from the centrifugal ball governor. The governor is on a vertical spindle driven by a bevel gear attached to the reducing-gear— thus making a mischarge at the moment that the speed exceeds the normal adjustment of the governor.
Ignition is by hot tube on top of the combustion chamber.
A relief cock at mid-stroke facilitates easy starting. These engines are built in seven sizes, from 2 to 20 B. H. P.
The Backus Gas Engine
The Backus Horizontal Gas Engine
The Backus Gas Engine
The Backus Vertical Gas Engine
The engines of the Backus Water Motor Company
are built in the horizontal and vertical styles, as illustrated in Figs. 123 and 124. The horizontal engines are built in fifteen sizes, from 5 to 60 B. H. P. They are of the four-cycle compression type, with the principal exhaust ports in the side of the cylinder opened by the piston at the end of the impulse stroke. They have also a supplementary exhaust valve in the cylinder head, with its exhaust passage connecting with the main exhaust. The exhaust push-rod is operated by an eccentric on the reducing-gear shaft, and carries a pendulum governor pivoted in the square box seen in the illustrations of the horizontal engines (Figs. 122 and 123). The push-blade of the governor is pivoted in the same box as the pendulum, with one end loosely locked in an Y-extension of the pendulum. The adjustment can be made while the engine is running, by a small screw seen in the front side of the small box, which compresses a spiral spring against a lug extending upward from the pendulum socket. The concave piston and cylinder head are used in the Backus engines for the greatest volume in the combustion chamber with the least wall surface.
The Backus Vertical Gas Engine (Sectional View)
The Backus vertical engine is illustrated in Fig, 124, and a section in Fig. 125. The valves are of the poppet type. The exhaust valve has its motion controlled by a cam on the reducing-gear, while the gas valve is governed by a centrifugal governor in the pulley. The governing is by limiting or shutting off the gas, but the general regulation is made by an index valve. The gas inlet is through the air-inlet valve seat, so that when the engine stops the air valve closes the gas inlet by the action of its spiral spring, which is not shown. This is independent and automatic, and prevents the escape of gas by leaving the gas valve open.
The concave piston and cylinder head are shown in the cut; the gas inlet at a, combined gas-and-air valve at b, and the exhaust valve at d.
The Hartig Gas Engine
The engines of the Hartig Standard Gas Engine Company
are all made in the vertical style for gas or gasoline vapor, from a carburetor that gives a saturated air-vapor mixture, which is not explosive until a further admixture of air in the mixing-chamber of the engine completes its explosive quality. The engines are of the four-cycle compression type; ignition by hot porcelain tube or electric spark, and time igniter for the hot tube. The valves are of the poppet type. The exhaust valve is operated from a reducing-spur gear by crank p1n, rod, and lever. The governor is of the centrifugal lever type, connected to a cam sleeve that has a circular motion by the movement of the balls, and a longitudinal motion by a spiral slot in the sleeve moving over a fixed pin in the main shaft. By this means the longitudinal movement of the sleeve rides the push-rod roller of the gas valve on to or off the cam, in such a way as to graduate the gas charges to meet the speed emergency.
The adjustment of the governor is made by spiral springs holding the balls in the position for normal speed.
The inlet-valve stem carries a double disc. The lower one is proportionally small for the gas passage, while the air is drawn in between the discs, the upper and larger valve discharging the mixture into the explosion chamber.
The Hartig Vertical Gas Engine (Sectional View)
Fig. 126 illustrates the power engine, which is made in several sizes, from ½ to 8 B. H. P.
The Hartig Pumping Gas Engine (Sectional View)
Fig. 127 represents the pumping attachment operated from spur gear, all fixed complete on one base.
These engines as observed run on a consumption of from 18 cubic feet of gas in the larger sizes to 20 cubic feet in the smallest size per horse-power per hour. The pumping engines are of a capacity to force water to the highest city buildings.
The Allman Gas and Gasoline Engine
The Allman engines are built in both the horizontal and vertical style. The horizontal engine (Fig. 128), in several sizes from 2 to 15 B. H. P., is of the four-cycle compression type, mounted on a substantial iron base. The valves are of the poppet type, the exhaust valve being operated by a cam on the reducing-gear, and a roller disc on a lever actuating a second lever at the valve stem through a connecting rod. The governor is a novel application in its adaptation to both governing and in balancing the crank motion.
The Allman Gas and Gasoline Engine
The block shown on the hub of the fly-wheel (Fig. 128) is the frame plate of the governor, which supports a radial pin on which slides a rectangular block of steel, with angular grooves on each side, in which the pins of a yoke lever slide by the centrifugal action of the steel block.
The other end of the yoke lever has also a yoke that straddles the sliding-sleeve on the main shaft, in which are pins entering a groove in the sleeve, and thus by the centrifugal action of the sliding steel block controls the movement of the sleeve in the direction of the axis of the shaft.
At the outer end of the radial pin, a spiral spring adjusted by a nut and check nut holds the steel sliding-block to the proper position at the normal speed of the engine. By the adjustment of the tension of the spring, the governor controls the engine at any desired speed.
A second groove in the sliding-sleeve operates a yoke lever and bell crank, touching the gas-valve stem with an adjusting screw—thus regulating the gas charge volume or cutting off as required.
The Allman Vertical Gas Engine
The vertical engine, of this company (Fig. 129), is made on the same general principles as the horizontal type, and of a 2, 3, and 4 B. H. P.
The governor on the vertical engine is of the horizontal, centrifugal ball type, with bell-crank movement of a sleeve on the main shaft—the governor being located in the pulley.
The lever, which is operated by a groove in the governor sleeve, extends down to and ending with a roller disc that rides on an adjustable wedge, resting on the arm of a rock shaft, the opposite arm of which lifts the gas-valve stem.
The range of travel of the push-roller on the wedge is limited by the governor, and thus makes a variable charge of gas.
The Allman ¾ H. P. Vertical Gas Engine
The smallest size vertical of ¾ B. H. P. (Fig. 130) are constructed on the same general principles as the larger eng1nes, but with a pedestal and base in one solid piece. The governing is in the same line as described for the larger vertical engines, but is applied to the exhaust valve, which is made to open partially or fully, or remain closed for regulating the speed—the wedge action for the exhaust valve being the same as for the gas charge in the other engines.
The Nash Gas Engine
The Nash engines are built by the National Meter Company
. They are of the vertical style, in nine sizes from 1/3 to 10 H. P. with single cylinders; and in ten sizes from 10 to 200 H. P. with double and quadruple cylinders. The smaller engines are of the two-cycle compression type, taking an impulse at every revolution in each cylinder, thus making the action of the double-cylinder engines equivalent to the action of a single-cylinder steam engine or an impulse at each half-revolution of a single crank.
The Nash Vertical Single Cylinder Gas Engine
The Nash Vertical Double Cylinder Gas Engine
The Nash Vertical Small Size Single Cylinder Gas Engine
The double-cylinder engine (Fig. 133), the single cylinder with double fly-wheel (Fig. 132), and the small single cylinder with one fly-wheel (Fig. 134) represent the general appearance of the engines of this company. They are all adapted for the use of illuminating gas, gasoline, natural or producer gas. Ignition is by hot tube or the electric spark, as desired.
The larger engines have poppet valves, and are of the four-cycle compression type, and are now made in one-, two-, and four-cylinder vertical style, with reducing-gear and cam shaft, which operates the inlet and exhaust valve by direct-acting push-rods with back springs. The inlet-valve push-rods have bracket arms with pivoted push-blades that regulate the gas charge by the governor through a rock shaft and levers, which trip the push-blade contact for each gas-inlet valve.
This class of two- and four-cylinder engines is built in many sizes, ranging up to 200 B.H.P., with multi-polar generators on the same base for electric lighting. Also combination pumping engines on a single base for deep wells; also combination engines and air compressors adapted to any required air pressure.
The Nash Vertical Single Cylinder Gas Engine (Side Section)
The Nash Vertical Single Cylinder Gas Engine (End Section)
Some of the smaller Nash engines and the small pumping engines are provided with piston valves. In the two-cycle engines a combustion chamber is formed in the head of the cylinder, as seen in the sections (Figs. 135 and 136) into which the supply port and inlet valve opens. The lower end of the cylinder opens into a closed crank chamber, into which the gas and-air mixture is drawn by the upward motion of the piston, through the mixing valve not shown. By the design of the mixing-valve the inflow of gas and air is adjusted partly by the relative proportions of the valve-seat openings.
The Nash Gas Valve
The flow of gas is further controlled by an independent index-gas valve (Fig. 137), so that the charge is always uniform in quality and density. By the downward motion of the piston the mixture is compressed in the close crank case and is supplied to the combustion chamber through a passage shown in Fig. 135, passing a valve, K, operated and controlled by the governor, for the purpose of varying the mixture charge to the needs for uniform engine speed. The larger inlet valve at the end of the passage is opened by a cam on the main shaft through a roller contact and push-rod, and closed by a spring.
The piston igniter is also a timing-valve, having a cavity, globular in shape, that receives its charge through a tangential opening that produces a vertical motion by which the gas and air are thoroughly mixed, and by a further movement of the piston the cavity is fired and the burning contents projected into the combustion chamber of the cylinder. It receives its motion from an eccentric on the shaft and a connecting rod. These engines exhaust through ports in the cylinder at the end of the piston stroke into an annular chamber on the outside of the cylinder wall.
The Nash Exhaust Ports
In Fig. 138 is shown the exhaust port chamber, cover off, with the ports in sight. This is one of the earlier, styles of the Nash engine with the gas-index valve opening through the side of the cylinder, with its inlet port uncovered during part of the upward stroke of the piston.
The Nash Vertical Gas Engine with Piston Valve
In Fig. 139 is shown the vertical engine, with the piston-ignition valve separate at the left of the engine cut. It is also shown in Fig. 32, in the chapter on ignition devices.
The Nash Horizontal Pumping Engine
The Nash horizontal pumping engine (Fig. 140) is especially adapted for elevating water to the upper floors of buildings. It is of the two-cycle type, with piston gas and exhaust valves operated from eccentrics on the crank shaft. It is operated with either gas or gasoline.
The pump is located vertically within the engine frame, with a bell-crank lever above, and connecting rods to pump and engine pistons. This is the smallest engine made by this company, has a three-inch cylinder, four-inch stroke, and is equal to 4/10 B. H. P. in water delivered, or 100 gallons 100 feet high per hour.
The Prouty Electro-Gasoline Engine
The Prouty Electro-Gasoline Engine
The engines of the Prouty Company
are built in the vertical style, from 5 H. P. upward. It is designed for stationary and road-wagon service, and for this last purpose the water-cooling arrangement is a departure from the practice in other engines, by the use of a small metal tank placed directly over the cylinder, as shown in the cut (Fig. 141). By the quick and direct circulation, the evaporation of the warm water and radiation of the tank surface are sufficient to keep the cylinder walls at the proper temperature.
The engines are of the four-cycle compression type, using poppet valves with electric ignition by contact points, operated from a cam on the reducing-gear shaft. Primary or storage batteries are used. The governor is located on a disc attached to the reducing-shaft.
A gasoline pump, on the level with the tank at the left in the cut, is driven by a cam on the governor shaft and controlled by the governor. The gasoline is thus discharged in regulated quantity against the bottom of the intake valve; its opening is automatically closed, so that there is no possibility of spilling or discharge from the air inlet by the jarring or tipping of a wagon or carriage which the engine is driving. The pump has a positive throw controlled by the governor, which itself is not influenced by the jostling of a vehicle. The design of this engine was in view of its adaptation for driving road and traction wagons. It is also built for stationary power.
A peculiar muffler made by this company gives a silent discharge of the exhaust so desirable in road and street motors.
Ignition by spark takes place in the inlet throat, between the valve chamber and cylinder, and at such time as to avoid the jar from sudden explosion at the exact end of the stroke of the piston.
The Lambert Gas and Gasoline Engine
The Lambert Gas and Gasoline Engine (Front End View)
The engines built by the Lambert Gas and Gasoline Engine Company
are all of the horizontal four-cycle type. They are scheduled in fifteen sizes, from 1 to 40 B. H. P. The valves are all of the poppet type and are operated by a secondary shaft and worm reducing-gear. The exhaust valve is opened by a lever across and under the end of the cylinder, the lever having a roller riding against a cam on the secondary shaft.
The Lambert Exhaust Valve Box (Water Head Removed)
The exhaust chamber (Fig. 143) has a water circulation through a jacket, and the cylinder head is also jacketed and connected, so that there can be no leak into the cylinder from the water circulation.
The Lambert Gas and Gasoline Engine
In Fig. 144 is shown the left side with the valve gear and location of the governor, which is driven by a bevel gear on the secondary shaft.
The Lambert Valve & Ignition Gear
In Fig. 145 is shown the detailed end view of the engine; the bell-crank lever that operated the gas-inlet valve from a cam on the secondary shaft, as also the sparking-cam o at the end of the shaft.
The spark-breaker and electrode are fixed on a small-eared flange bolted to the cylinder head, through which a rock shaft and insulated electrode pass. One arm of the rock shaft presses the electrode on the inside, while the outside arm is attached to a connecting rod, operated by the spring lever z and cam block k, which is adjustable. The amount of pressure of the inside arm is adjusted by the nuts x and y on the connecting rod.
The Lambert Electric Connection & Gas Regulator
In Fig. 146 is shown the electric battery, sparking-coil, and wiring, in which H and G are the binding posts on the valve chamber and insulated electrode. A relief cock is furnished for starting these engines.
In Fig. 147 is shown the gas regulator used with the Lambert engines—a most useful adjunct where the gas pressure is not uniform. A priming-cup for starting the gasoline engines and a gasoline pump operated by the cam shaft is not shown in the cuts.
The Lambert Portable Gas Engine
The " Leaflet" of directions issued by the Lambert Company is an excellent guide to the operator of a gas or gasoline engine, and gives special directions for observing the internal action of the engine by the sounds to the ear.
The Hicks Self-Starting Gas and Gasoline Engines
The Hicks Compound Cylinder Gas Engine (Left Side)
The Hicks Compound Cylinder Gas Engine (Right Side)
In the engines of the Detroit Gas Engine Company
a marked departure from the ordinary combination of cylinders for shortening the engine cycle has been made by placing two cylinders in tandem, by which an impulse is made for every revolution of the shaft. A piston rod, extending through a long sleeve between the cylinders, connects both pistons. The sleeve, which is the stuffing-box of the forward cylinder head, is packed by rings on the piston rod, which travel in the sleeve with the rod. The sleeve, being water-jacketed, avoids the difficulties heretofore met with piston rods running through ordinary stuffing-boxes and exposed to abnormal temperature in double-acting gas engines. With the Hicks engine the heated part of the piston rod is not a rubbing surface.
The valves are all of the vertical poppet style. The exhaust valves are operated through double-armed rock shafts centrally located under the cylinder, one arm of each moving in contact with alternating cams on the cam shaft.
The exhaust-valve chambers are water-jacketed. The cam shaft is driven with a reducing-worm gear, and dropped in its line position by a pair of spur gears for convenience of operating the valves. The inlet valves have also a positive motion directly from the cam shaft; as also the inlet valve for gas and gasoline, the mixture being made in a cross pipe between the inlet valves.
The gasoline pump is attached to the bed-piece, and is operated directly from a cam on the cam shaft through a bell crank with adjustment for pump throw. Electric ignition from batteries and spark coil by a break contact inside of the combustion chamber is used. An insulated platinum electrode with a rock shaft and tappet operated from a cam on the cam shaft through a pivoted lever for each cylinder, is the usual device for ignition. The governor is of the horizontal ball type, driven by spur-speed gear on the cam shaft, and through a push-rod varies the lift of the gas or gasoline valve, and thereby varies the charge.
The engines are equally well adapted for the use of coal gas, natural gas, producer gas, and gasoline. The regular sizes are at present eleven, from 3 to 55 B. H. P., with special power plants up to 300 H. P. The two-cycle effect of this engine gives it the uniform motion so desirable for driving electric generators for lighting purposes. The two views (Figs. 149 and 150) show the working details of this unique engine.
The American Motor
The American Gas Engine
This is a high-speed gas and gasoline motor made by the American Motor Company
for stationary and marine service. It is as yet built in two sizes, of from 1 to 2 H. P. respectively, according to the fuel used, and of the style shown in Fig. 151; also as a twin engine with two cranks on one shaft of 2 to 4 H. P. Speed from 400 to 600 revolutions per minute. These engines are extremely light for their power, owing to the displacement of a water-jacket by the use of a coiled wire wrapping on the single-wall cylinder, which produces an extended air-cooling surface and dispenses with the use of water for cooling the cylinder.
These engines are of the four-cycle compression type, with but two valves, both with positive lift by push-rods and rollers with tension springs; the push rods are operated by cams, one on each side of the reducing-gear wheel. The gas or vapor enters through a graduating valve at the left in the cut, and the air through an opening under the inlet valve, also seen in the cut (Fig. 151). The insulated electrodes enter through the cylinder head, and are flashed by an induction or Ruhmkorff coil and dry battery. For stationary engines a- governor is provided. Weight of the No. 1, 50 lbs., including fly-wheel without base; No. 2, 75 lbs., including fly-wheel without base —being the lightest gas or gasoline engines in the trade for their power.
The American Marine Gas Engine
The adaptation of this engine in its portable form to the propulsion of small boats is a unique piece of mechanism. This adaptation is shown in Fig. 152, as applied to an ordinary rowboat of from 12 to 16 feet in length. By the hooked frame it is quickly dropped into place on the stern-board and clamped, the connection made with a carburetor at any convenient place in the boat with flexible tubing, and the boat is ready to start.
The motion of the vertical shaft inside the casing, seen at the water surface in the cut, is transferred to the propeller shaft by a bevel gear inside the rectangular case at the bottom. The blades of the propeller are rotated for stopping or backing by the movement of the grooved sleeve on the shaft casing and the bell crank, which transmits a reverse motion to the propeller blades. The lateral motion of the propeller and shaft for steering is made through the sector gear, and all the operations of steering, forward, stop, or backing, are made by two motions of the helm: a lateral motion for steering as usual for boats, and a vertical motion for changing the angle of the propeller blades. The cylinders of these little engines are inches in diameter, four-inch stroke, and make from 400 to 600 revolutions per minute, with a boat speed of from six to eight miles per hour.
The Star Gas and Gasoline Engine
The Star Horizontal Gas Engine
The Star Vertical Gas Engine
These engines are built by the Star Gas Engine Company
. They are of both horizontal and vertical style, as shown in Figs. 153 and 154.
The horizontal engine is built in eight sizes, from 1 to 25 B. H.P. The vertical engines are built in one size, of 2 B. H. P.
The design is of the four-cycle compression type with poppet valves. The inlet valve serves also as a gas valve, having a broad seat with an annular slot connecting with the gas passage and gas-regulating or index valve.
The annular slot in the inlet-valve seat serves to thoroughly mix the gas and air at the moment of entering the combustion chamber.
A vertical ball governor driven by a bevel gear on the side of the reducing-spur gear operates through a bell crank, the lateral movement of a disc revolving on a pin fixed in the gas and-air-valve push-rod for making a graduating or hit-and-miss charge. An arm on the push-rod is adjustable for regulating the throw of the valve.
Some of the engines of this company are controlled by a pendulum governor, working on the inertia principle and using no springs. Ignition is by hot tube, which is placed on the top of the cylinder in the horizontal engine, leaving the cylinder head free to be removed without disturbing the attachments. In the vertical engine the igniter is fastened to the cylinder head.
The Daimler Motors
The Daimler Motor Company
, manufacturers of stationary gas, gasoline, and kerosene motors, and gasoline motors for boats, carriages, street-railway cars, fire engines, and portable electric lighting, are the sole owners of the United States and Canadian patents of Gottlieb Daimler, of Canstadt, Germany.
Their motors are all of the four-cycle compression type, following the principles formulated by M. Beau de Rochas, and carried out practically by Otto and Daimler in Germany, and now made by this company with many improvements derived from experience. All the valves are of the poppet style, closing automatically with springs. In the earlier engines and those of the duplex style with a single crank, the governing was made by a miss in the push-rod blade on the exhaust-valve stem by which the exhaust valve remained closed through a single cycle or more, as required by the action of the governor —the governor being of the horizontal centrifugal style, located in the pulley on the main shaft or in the fly-wheel when an outside fly-wheel is used.
The Daimler Gasoline Engine
The Daimler Two-Cylinder Gas Engine
The Daimler Two-Cylinder Gas Engine (Side Elevation)
The operation of the governor is transferred through a grooved sleeve to the lateral arm of a bell-crank push-blade on the push-rod of each cylinder, by a vertical pivoted lever carrying a stop-block, which is thrown out and into contact with the arm of the bell-crank push-blades, and makes a miss-opening of the exhaust valve, as shown in the duplex motor (Fig 156) and also in the single-cylinder motor (Fig. 155). By this arrangement the movement of the piston, with the exhaust valve closed, simply compresses and recompresses the burned gases, and allowing no fresh charge to enter the cylinder until by the return to normal speed the governor allows the push-blades to act on the exhaust-valve spindle.
The ingenious mechanism by which the alternating motion of the valves is secured without the use of gearing for both the double and single cylinders is worthy of notice. By this arrangement the reducing-gear and its noise have a substitute in the eccentric double continuous groove, in which sliding-pin blocks perform the operation of a single eccentric for each cylinder. The pin-blocks and push-rods being off from a radial line, allow the blocks to cross successively the intersection of the eccentric groove.
In the new style of motors of this company the adaptation to the most ready fuel to be found in all parts of the world (kerosene), has made this style of motor a most desirable one for the foreign trade as well as a most economical one for home use.
The New Daimler Gasoline Engine
The Daimler Single-Cylinder Motor & Electric Generator
Fig. 158 represents one of the new style small motors with enclosing case for the crank and connecting rod, while the outside reducing-gear and governor is enclosed within the area of the fly-wheel, making a most convenient and compact motor for all purposes of power.
In the kerosene motor the oil is vaporized by the heat of the exhaust by means of a jacketed evaporator, which only holds a moderate charge and is fed from a storage tank at a safe distance.
The single-cylinder motors are made from 1 to 12 B. H. P., and the double-cylinder motors from 4 to 24 H. P. The four cylinder motors are made up to 48 H. P.
The Daimler 4 H. P. Marine Motor
These motors have been adapted to marine propulsion to a large extent. Fig. 160 represents a 4 H. P. marine motor of the two-cylinder style on single crank, making the combination equivalent to a two-cycle engine. With this engine the governor controls the speed with the variable load caused by stopping, slowing, or reversing the propeller wheel—all of these movements being controlled by the lever shown in the cut. The first back pull of the lever eases the friction-clutch, which is the driving connection of the engine with the wheel shaft. A further pull unships the driving-clutch, and a still further pull puts the bevel-friction gear in contact for reversing the wheel. The marine motors are all made for gasoline fuel.
The Olds Gas and Gasoline Engine
The Olds Gas and Vapor Engine
The Olds Gas and Vapor Engine (Vertical Plan View)
We illustrate in Fig. 164 the latest design of gas and gasoline engines built by P. F. Olds & Son
. These engines are of the four-cycle compression type, with poppet valves larger than the usual size to facilitate the exhaust and charge, and to avoid the counter-pressures usual with small-sized valves.
The valve gear is a simple eccentric on the main shaft connected by a rod to a slide bar, moving in a bracketed box at the side of the cylinder. The slide bar carries a revolving alternating or toothed wheel, the alternating motion of which is governed by a pendulum swinging upon a concentric pivot.
The ratchet and toothed wheel are pivoted to the slide, and the teeth become push-pins to the spindle of the exhaust valve, and are made to open the exhaust regularly at normal speed and make a miss by throwing the notch in the wheel opposite the spindle when the speed is above the normal. By throwing out the pawl, which operates the alternating wheel, compression will be omitted by the open exhaust, and the engine can be easily turned to any point for starting without the resistance of compression.
The inlet valve is opposite and in line with the exhaust valve, and is opened by the suction of the piston. The vaporizing chamber for gasoline is in front of the cylinder head, and receives near its bottom the air pipe from the engine-bed frame.
When running with gasoline, a small pump is operated by the eccentric rod, which supplies a small reservoir over the inlet valve, arranged so that the surplus runs back to the reservoir below the level of the pump, thus avoiding the possibility of accidental overflow of gasoline. On the top of the reservoir is a sight glass that shows the flow of the gasoline, with a set valve to regulate the feed to the mixing-chamber, where it is atomized by the inrush of air to the cylinder during the charging stroke.
The igniter is by hot tube or electric, preferably a hot tube, with some special improvements that make this style of ignition very desirable. The igniters are not shown in the cut, but occupy the place of a plug seen on top of the valve chamber.
This company also makes a vertical engine on the same principles as the horizontal one, in sizes of from 1 to 5 H. P. Their horizontal engines are made in five sizes, from 7 to 50 B. H. P. Also double-cylinder launch engines and launches—2 H. P. for 18- and 20-foot launches, 4 H. P. for 25-foot, and 8 H. P. for 35-foot launches. In these launch motors the gasoline for a day's run is stored in an iron receptacle at the motor, thus avoiding all danger from pipes and separate tank leakage.
In these boats the engine is not required to be set exactly in line with the propeller shaft. A reversing friction-clutch is used with a flexible shaft connection, so that the setting of the engine and shaft in any boat is an easy matter. The cooling water from the cylinders is discharged through the exhaust pipe, which is a rubber hose passing out at the stern. By this arrangement the rubber exhaust pipe is kept cool, and its flexibility makes a silent exhaust.
The Weber Gas and Gasoline Engine
The Weber Gas and Gasoline Engine, 3 to 15 H. P.
The Weber Gas, Gasoline and Crude Oil Engine
The engines of the Weber Gas and Gasoline Engine Company
are of the four-cycle compression type, with poppet valves operated by direct push-rods and cams on the reducing-gear, which is enclosed with the governor in an iron box, partly filled with oil, which insures perfect lubrication of the gear and keeps out dust. The horizontal styles are made in eight sizes, of 3 to 15 B. H. P., as shown in Fig. 166; and in ten sizes, from 18 to 100 H. P., of the style as shown in Fig. 170. They also build a one size vertical engine, of 2 B. H. P., for pumping water, running ventilating fans and printing presses, etc., as shown in Fig. 168.
The Weber Gasoline Hoisting Engine
The illustration (Fig. 169) represents a self-contained gasoline engine hoister, of 10 B. H. P.—a reliable and compact machine, designed to meet the wants of miners, quarrymen, and contractors. The engines of this company are also designed for the use of kerosene, crude oil, and distillate.
The style of horizontal engine (Fig. 166) of from 3 to 15 B. H. P. has three valve push-rods—the inner one opens the exhaust valve, the middle one opens the inlet valve, and the outside rod operates the timing-valve in the igniter passage.
The Weber Gas and Gasoline Engine, Connections
Referring to the lettered diagram (Fig. 167), which is arranged for gasoline, A is the needle valve to the igniter burner, B the gasoline valve, C the handle of the gasoline mixing-valve. which is also the starting-lever for letting in the first charge of gasoline. When the engine is running this valve is opened by the suction of the piston. In the larger engines it is counter-weighted, as seen in Fig. 170. D is a collar for connecting the vaporizing pipe L; E, valve for regulating the gasoline supply; e, a lever to throw out the timing-valve when starting.
The Weber Vertical Gas Engine
The governor on the smaller engines is of the pendulum type. It operates the inlet or charging valve, opening the valve at every other revolution at normal speed, and missing the contact at increased speed when the spring holds the valve closed until decreasing speed allows the governor to act on the push-rod and again open the inlet valve.
The governor on the larger engines is a fly-weight on the reducing-gear, adjusted by a spring and set nuts. O is a glass gauge to show the height of oil in the gearbox; J is its cover.
In their latest style of engine (Fig. 170) the main exhaust is through ports in the cylinder opened by the piston at the termination of the stroke, with a supplementary exhaust valve in the cylinder head operated by a lever and push-rod. The timing-valve is operated by a lever pivoted on the cylinder, in contact with an adjustable push-block on the inlet-valve push-rod.
In the later designs of the Weber many improvements have been introduced to facilitate easy starting and for adapting it for pumping water for irrigation, for which purpose it is well suited and largely used. Its adaptation for the use of kerosene and heavy petroleum oils, and also for crude petroleum, has made it a very useful motive power for agricultural work.
The Priestman Oil Engine
This has been long in use in Europe, and for several years past has been largely improved by the American builders, Priestman & Co.
, who have introduced a new system for perfecting the atomization of crude and kerosene oils, or any of the cheap distillates of petroleum. By the system adopted in this engine, perfect combustion is produced; ignition is made positive, and the fouling of the cylinder and valves is obviated to such extent as to require cleaning only at periods of several months. The low cost of the heavier petroleum distillates used makes the cost of power the lowest that can be obtained in an explosive motor.
The Priestman Oil Engine (Lettered Parts)
In the cut, Fig. 172, A is the oil tank filled with any ordinary high test (usually 1500 test) oil, from which oil under air pressure is forced through a pipe to the B three-way cock, and thence conveyed to the C atomizer, where the oil is met by a current of air and broken up into atoms and sprayed into the D mixer, where it is mixed with the proper proportion of supplementary air and sufficiently heated by the exhaust from the cylinder passing around this chamber. The mixture is then drawn by suction through the I inlet valve into the E cylinder, where it is compressed by the piston and ignited by an electric spark passing between the points of the F ignition plug, the current for the spark being supplied from an ordinary battery furnished with the engine, the G governor controlling the supply of oil and air proportionately to the work performed. The burnt products are then discharged through the H exhaust valve, which is actuated by a cam. The I inlet valve is directly opposite the exhaust valve. The J air pump is used to maintain a small pressure in the oil tank to form the spray. K is the water-jacket outlet.
The Priestman Oil Engine
Fig. 171 illustrates the general features of this engine. It is built on the straight-line principle, by which the moment of greatest strain from the power impulse is met by the frame in direct lines between the points of pressure.
The Priestman Oil Engine
The design is of the four-cycle compression type, with poppet valves, and its regulation is by varying or cutting off the supply of atomized oil. The oil fuel is placed in the base of the engine in an air-tight chamber, A in Fig. 172.
The Priestman Air Pump
A small air-pump, J, operated from the reducing-gear shaft forces air into the oil chamber with a pressure sufficient to cause the oil to be lifted to the three-way adjusting cock B, which also admits air from the compressed air in the oil tank; and oil and air pass to the atomizer through two small pipes, where their proportion and quantity are regulated by the governor.
The Priestman Jacket Vaporizing Cylinder
The atomized oil and air are then injected into a jacketed cylinder, seen beneath the cylinder head and shown in section in Fig. 174, where it is completely vaporized by the heat from the exhaust in the outer chamber and further mixed with air to make a perfect explosive mixture by the indraught of air by the suction of the piston.
The Priestman Governor & Atomizer
The in-draught of air by the suction of the piston is also regulated by the governor, and enters the vaporizing jacket cylinder in an annular stream around the atomized jet, as shown in Fig. 175, which represents a section of the governor and inlet passages. For starting the engine a small hand-pump is used for the first charge. The bottom of the inside chamber of the jacketed cylinder is heated to perfect the vaporization of the first charge by a lamp placed under the D-shaped cover seen in Fig. 171. In this engine the lubrication of the cylinder and piston is accomplished by the oil of the working charge. A new heat device has been lately introduced for ignition for the Priestman engines, which for some reasons is preferred to the electric igniter.
The Priestman Oil Engine Indicator Card
In Fig. 176 is represented an indicator card of the Priestman engine, running under the three conditions of full load, half-load, and no load. The full line commences the compression at three-eighths of the stroke, and, with a clearance equal to one-half the piston stroke, the compression reaches 22 lbs. per square inch and is fired just before the termination of the compression stroke. The quick combustion is shown by the nearly vertical line, and its velocity is shown by the bound of the indicator arm above the mean, and its vibration continued, possibly helped by irregular combustion for one-half the stroke, as shown by the upper dotted lines, the continuous line showing the mean curve.
The second dotted line, showing a half-load card, indicates very clearly the retardation of combustion by weakening the charge of both oil and air, and the consequent lowering of all the lines of the card, carrying the charging line far below the atmospheric line. In the lowest and light-running card, the whole value of the card drops so as to make the card mean value about equal to the engine friction. It is certainly an interesting card for study, and we only wish that we could show this class of cards on a larger scale and for all the conditions of governing by limitation of fuel to compare with governing by closure of the exhaust valve.
The Lawson Gas and Gasoline Engine
The Lawson Vertical Gas Engine
Lawson Air & Gas Valve Gearing
The Lawson engines are built by Welch & Lawson
. They are of the four-cycle compression type and of the vertical style. They are built in eight sizes, from -J- to 15 B. H. P. with single cylinders, and of 20 and 30 B. H. P. with double cylinders. The concern also builds gasoline engines for horse-less wagons and carriages. Figs. 177 and 178 represent two styles of the vertical engine. The valves have a positive motion from two sets of reducing-gear, Fig. 177, one of which operates the poppet exhaust valve by a push-rod and cam on the reducing-gear shaft. The gas and air inlets are on the opposite side of the cylinder from the exhaust. The gas valve is a poppet, operated directly by a push-rod from a cam on the reducing-gear shaft, while a piston valve operated by a push-rod from a crank-pin on the reducing-gear governs the air inlet independently of the gas-inlet valve.
By this arrangement the air inlet is opened before the gas inlet is opened, and allows a sweep of pure air to enter at the head of the cylinder, followed by the mixture of gas and air; thus in a measure keeping the explosive mixture of gas and air separate from the products of the previous explosion by injecting it across and next to the cylinder head where the igniter inlet enters the cylinder. The same cycle of operation is made in the engine Fig. 178, by a single set of gearing.
The igniter is of the hot-tube style, entering the side of the cylinder directly under the head. The governor is of the horizontal, centrifugal style, taking its motion through a bevel gear from the reducing-gear shaft, and operates the gas-valve push-rod for a variable gas charge.
Lawson Pumping Engine
The Lawson pumping engines (Fig. 179) are made in two sizes, 1 and 2 B. H. P. These engines are constructed on the same principles as the power engines, only with inverted cylinder and with pump attachments on a single square base. This company is now building kerosene-oil engines of similar pattern as here described.
- Gas, Gasoline and Oil Vapor Engines by Gardner D. Hiscox, 1898, pages 177-255